- CHM 110 - CHEMISTRY AND ISSUES
IN THE ENVIRONMENT
- Ecological Footprint
Ecological Footprint of a person is calculated by considering all of
the biological materials consumed, and all of the biological wastes
generated, by that person in a given year. These materials and wastes
each demand ecologically productive areas, such as cropland to grow
potatoes, or forest to sequester fossil carbon dioxide emissions. All
of these materials and wastes are then individually translated into an
equivalent number of global hectares."
Calculate your Ecological
Footprint - After
the program loads use your cursor to point at the U.S. and then on
English. The program goes through quite a few screens with default
settings which you can change with buttons. As you go along watch the
gray box on the upper right to see the effect of different choices -
whether it increases or decreases the default numbers. Report how many
acres and planets that you need to support your lifestyle if everyone
in the world lived as you do.
Environmental Impact Calculator - another calculator.
Eco footprint standards
- these pages also have a calculator, but is not very precise in making
various adjustments. It does explain a little bit on how the
calculations are made.
Eco footprint history - Wikipedia - This shows that there have been a lot of research and work to back up the calculations.
- The Most Harmful Consumer Activities:
- From the Union of Concerned Scientists
- Cars and Light Trucks :
The manufacture and, more important, the use of consumers' vehicles
environmental damage--especially air pollution and global warming
--than any other single
consumer spending category.
- Meat and Poultry:
Meat and poulter production requires large amounts of water and
causes 20 percent of the
common (as opposed to toxic) water pollution related to consumer
expenditure. It also
uses a significant share of the nation's land--800 million acres
for grazing livestock and an
additional 60 million acres to grow animal feed. Red meat causes
especially hight amounts
of environmental damage for the nutrition it delivers.
- Fruit, Vegetables, and Grains:
Irrigated crops grown to meet consumer demand use an enormous
quantity of water (30
percent of consumer-related water use). pesticides and fertilizers
cause 5 percent of
consumer-related toxic water pollution. Food crops also use substantial
amounts of land.
- Household Appliances and Lighting Electricity seems
clean and nonpolluting
when it's used in the home, but most of it is generated by burning
fuels, especially coal. Appliances and lighting are responsible
for 15 percent of the
greenhouse-gas emissions related to consumer expenditures and
13 percent of
consumer-related common air pollution.
- Home Heating, Hot water, and Air Conditioning:
Cooling and heating homes and water has an impact on global warming
pollution similar to that of appliances and lighting. Systems
that rely on
electricity or oil contribute heavily to both problems. Most
fireplaces and wood
stoves are especially high air polluters.
- Home Construction:
The land and wood used for new homes are responsible for about
a quarter of
consumers' impact on wildlife and natural ecosystems. Six percent
consumer-related water pollution comes from manufacturing the
new homes and disturbing the soil during construction.
- Household Water and Sewage:
Despite advances in sewage treatment, municipal sewage remains
a major source
(around 11 percent) of water pollution, especially affecting
coastal areas and
estuaries. Interestingly, households' home water use is only
5 percent of th total
compare d with nearly 74 percent for food production and distribution.