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Charles E. Ophardt, Professor of Chemistry, Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, IL 60126, charleso@elmhurst.edu, Copyright 2004

TOPIC 10: WATER RESOURCES

For ON-LINE Lecture Discussion, you are required to do THREE questions:

One question from Ques.1-4. See specific student assignments.

ONE question from 5-8. Try to select a questions that not as many have answered.

A third question may be to respond or comment to someone else, or use General Questions to ask a general question the Prof or others might answer.

 Questions  Ques. 1a  Ques. 1b  Ques. 1c  Ques. 1d
 Student ID  2, 12, 21  3, 13, 22  4, 14, 23  5, 15, 24
 Questions  Ques. 2  Ques. 3  Ques. 4a  Ques. 4b
 Student ID 6, 16, 25  7, 17, 26, 8, 18, 27  9, 19, 28 10, 20, 29, 1, 11, 30

Check answers already completed in
Blackboard - Discussion Pages

Write out answers to questions in a WORD PROCESSOR
and then copy and paste into
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Requirements for the Lecture On-Line Discussion
Method to list references and citations.

Text book - p. 176-180 and chapter 10 - Water Resources and Water Pollution

 1. Introduction: Distribution of water on earth and Composition (Text p. 281-82)

ProfONotes: Relative Amounts of Sea Water and Fresh Water
Water cycle - Click down to see table - Earth Observatory

Water Budget

 2. Unique physical and chemical properties of water (Text p. 284-289)

ProfONotes: Hydrogen bonding

Hydrogen Bonding - Kimball

 A. Structure of the water molecule (Text p. 107)

Chemistry of Water -U. of Arizona Bio Project

Structures of Water and Ice

 B. Physical Properties (Text p. 284-289) Polarity - ProfONotes: Water Polarity
Hydrogen bonding - ProfONotes: Hydrogen bonding
Abnormal boiling point - ProfONotes: Boiling Point of Water
Freezing point
Density of ice - ProfONotes: Density of Ice
Heat of fusion and vaporization - apply to climate conditions

QUES. 1: Water is actually abnormal in many of its properties when compared to similar molecules. Hydrogen bonding is responsible for many of these abnormal behaviors. (Text p. 284-288)

Pick one question (a through d below).

 
 a. Define hydrogen bonding. How is hydrogen bonding related to polarity? Contrast this with regular covalent bonding in a water molecule. Polarity - ProfONotes: Water Polarity
Hydrogen bonding - ProfONotes: Hydrogen bonding
 b. Explain how hydrogen bonding affects the boiling point of water. Abnormal boiling point - ProfONotes: Boiling Point of Water
 c. Why does water expand when is freezes and thus makes it less dense than water and floats on top of the water? Explain on the atom/molecule level. What are the consequences for fish in a pond in the winter?  Density of ice - ProfONotes: Density of Ice
 d. What is specific heat and heat of vaporization and how do these relate to water and climate?  Use text

 C. Solvent properties Text p. 177-179
ProfONotes: Solubility
ProfONotes: Salts Dissolve

 QUES. 2: (answer both parts)
a. In the Trivial Pursuit Game, one of the questions is "What is the universal solvent?" What is meant by this question?
b. Use the concepts of polar and non-polar molecules to explain how water is able to dissolve a polar/ionic molecule such as salt, but is not able to dissolve a non-polar molecule such as oil.

Text p. 177-179
ProfONotes: Solubility
ProfONotes: Salts Dissolve
ProfONotes: Non-polar

ProfONotes: Soap

.
 D. Electrolysis of water -review Electrolysis demo 
 E. Elements that are unstable (react) with water  

 

3. Chemistry of natural water
 A. Water (hydrologic) cycle

Text p. 282-83
ProfONotes bottom half of page: Hydrologic Cycle

Water cycle - Use the submenus - Earth Observatory

Hydrologic Cycle

Animated Hydrologic Cycle- Can click on left side for explanation of the terms.

 B. Composition of Water - sea vs. fresh water vs. distilled water Text p. 282-83
 C. Water hardness - calcium, magnesium - Application to detergents, water softeners Water Hardness - Definition and Environmental Effects
 D. Other ions/molecules present - salinity (NaCl), carbonate or bicarbonate, nitrate, phosphate, oxygen General Section on Water Quality Parameters
Drinking Water Contiaminents - EPA

QUES. 3: Choose ONE of the following terms or ions which are found naturally in water. List the following: name, formula, why present, effect on water quality, effects on water.

Water hardness, dissolved solids, alkalinity, phosphate, nitrogen


Water Hardnes - more detailed and water softener.
General Section on Water Quality Parameters

4. Water Resources and Usage (Text p. 289-93)

Great Lakes - EPA
Water - links -EPA
General Reference: EPA - Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water


 A. Distribution of water on earth - oceans, lakes, rivers, surface run-off, ground water  ProfONotes: Ground Water - diagram and definition of terms
 B. Water usage (stats) - domestic and commercial,
irrigation, industrial, power plant cooling
 What is fresh water used for in the U.S.?

 C. Water treatment for domestic use - sedimentation and flocculation, filtration, chlorination

Home Water Treatment Methods

Where Does My Drinking Water Come From And How Is It Treated?

Chicago River History
City of Chicago - Jardine Water Plant - A short description of how it works
Water Treatment in New Orleans A description of how water from the Mississippi River is purified for municipal use.
Chlorination of Water

D. Water resource problems - scarcity, drought, floods, salt water desalinization
Contamination - surface or ground water (organics, pesticides, herbicides, nitrate, bacterial)
 

 QUES. 4a: Use Chicago or New Orleans water treatment sites to give a brief description of how water is treated to make it of drinking water quality. Give the source of the water. List some of the chemicals used in the various treatment processes.

City of Chicago - pdf Go to near the bottom of the file pages 5 and 6.

Water Treatment in New Orleans A description of how water from the Mississippi River is purified for municipal use.

 QUES. 4b: First simply list 5 or more chemicals that may be found in water. Use one of first two sites. Then each student should pick one or two new chemicals and give more details as follows: What might be the source of contamination? What are some of the possible adverse health effects if they are above permissible limits? Look up more info from the EPA Fact Sheets - scan this to find some interesting facts which may apply to water pollution and why you do not want to find it in the water.

Water Quality test results - Elmhurst - pdf file

Water Quality Results for City of Chicago -pdf
Water Quality results from New Orleans

EPA - All Water Quality Contaminants this site gives possible source of contamination and links to the Fact Sheets.

Drinking Water Contaminants - EPA

Fact Sheets for EPA regulated chemicals in water

5. Water management
 A. Dams, channelization, and diversion projects  
 B. Groundwater
a. Terms and definitions
b. "Mining" of domestic use and/or irrigation
c. Sea-salt water intrusion in coastal areas

 What is Ground Water?

ProfONotes: Ground Water - look at second "mining" and third panels (salt water intrusion) on page.


 QUES. 5: a. What is the Ogallala Aquifer, what is it used for, what are the problems associated with its use?
b. How concerned should regional leaders be about the depletion of this aquifer?
Text p. 289
Ogallala Aquifer
Ogallala Aquifer Depletion

 C. Irrigation - Salinity and Desalinization Soil Salinity - Natural or Irrigation, Alberta, Canada

 QUES. 6: Briefly explain how reverse osmosis is used to remove the salt from the water. Text p. 293-294


HOW REVERSE OSMOSIS AND DESALINATION WORKS
Reverse Osmosis - Wikipedia
Desalination of Sea Water -

Reverse Osmosis - for home water treatment

Do Ques. 7a or 7b or 7c.

QUES. 7: a.The Aral Sea - A Case Study in the Effects of Extensive Irrigation. Where is the Aral Sea? What are the factors that have resulted in the almost complete drying up the sea? What is the environmental damage that has resulted?

Text p. 310-11
OR

QUES. 7b: Owens Lake - California. Why did the Owens Lake dry up. What are the significant effects from the dust storms which originate over the Lake?

QUES. 7c: Mono Lake - California. Why is Mono Lake being depleted at a faster rate than it can be filled. What are the ramifications if the lake dries up?

Introduction to the Aral Sea with an aerial photograph
Wikipedia article
Photos showing a comparison of the Aral Sea in 1962 and 1987.
The black and white photograph was acquired August 29, 1962 during a classified intelligence satellite mission. The color digital image, covering the same Aral Sea region, was acquired by the unclassified Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) on August 19, 1987.
Another photo comparison -2005
Aral Sea Disaster by James Rupert

______________

Owens Lake, California -

Mono Lake , California - look at the FAQ link at end of first paragraph.


 D. Conservation - reduce waste, reduce irrigation losses  
 E. Reclamation of Waste water for irrigation

Text p.291-93

Reclaimed Water Introduction - Wikipedia
East Bay, CA Reclamation of water from waste treatment
Uses for recycled water


 QUES. 8: Describe what is meant by "reclaimed water". Where does it come from? Why use it? What is it used for? East Bay, CA Reclamation of water from waste treatment