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Charles E. Ophardt, Professor of Chemistry, Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, IL 60126, charleso@elmhurst.edu, Copyright 2004

TOPIC 11: SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

For ON-LINE Lecture Discussion, you are required to do THREE questions:

One question from Ques.1-4. See specific student assignments below.

ONE question from 5-8. Try to self select questions that no else or only a few have answered.

A third question may be to respond or comment to someone else, or use General Questions to ask a general question the Prof or others might answer.

 Questions  Ques. 1a  Ques. 1b  Ques. 2a  Ques. 2b
 Student ID  4, 16, 23,  6, 18, 25, 30 20, 3, 15, 26  22, 5, 17, 27
 Questions  Ques. 3a  Ques. 3b  Ques 4  
 Student ID 12, 24, 7, 1, 19, 28  2, 9, 21, 29  11, 13, 10, 8, 14

 

Check answers already completed in
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Requirements for the Lecture On-Line Discussion
Method to list references and citations.


Text - Chap 10



 1. Point and non point sources of pollution and natural processes affecting pollutant levels Definitions of point and non point sources of pollution
Urban Non-Point Sources of Water Pollution
Nopoint Sources - EPA
 2. Disease causing agents Text - p, 293, 295

History of Chicago Water Supply
Chicago River Reversed

History or Water Supply and Disease
History or Water Treatment
History or Water Distribution incl. Chicago (bot)

Do a or b.
QUES. 1a:
Define point and non point sources of water pollution and give a few specific examples.

QUES. 1b: How did the city of Chicago attempt to cope with cholera and typhoid outbreaks? What is the reason that the city of Chicago reversed the flow of both the Chicago River and the Calumet River?

Non-Point Sources of Water Pollution - EPA

History of Chicago Water Supply
Chicago River Reversed

History or Water Supply and Disease
History or Water Treatment
History or Water Distribution incl. Chicago (bot)



 3. Biodegradable organic oxygen demanding wastes BOD

Text p. 295-296

ProfONotes: Natural Biochemical Cycles

BOD Test -

 4. Plant Nutrients - Eutrophication

Text p. 297-298

Nutrient Home Page
What are nutrients?
Home Page - Are Nutrient's in Water too Much of a Good Thing? Extensive further links

ProfONotes: Phosphate Cycle

ProfONotes: Nitrogen Cycle

ProfONotes (see bottom half): Natural Biochemical Cycles

Nitrogen cycle - Kimball
Nutrient Overload

Do a or b
QUES. 2a:
What pollutant is being measured by BOD? How does this pollutant if present in water affect the biolife in the water?

QUES. 2b: What are nutrients? How do nutrients affect the process of eutrophication? Which nutrient can cause some health problems? Look at some of the sites above especially those marked with ProfO Notes.


ProfONotes: Natural Biochemical Cycles

What parts of the Nation are most effected by nutrients?
Are drinking Water Supplies Effected?
Home Page - Are Nutrient's in Water too Much of a Good Thing? Extensive further links
Maps of Nitrate Concentrations



5. Industrial and Agricultural Wastes Text - p, 299-304
 A. Inorganic metals  Text p. 299-302
 B. Organics and Pesticides Text p. 302-304, 494-498
Pesticides and Herbicides in Water - definitions EPA
 C. Animal Feed lot Waste  Manure from feed lots


Do a or b
QUES. 3a:
What are the issues relating to pesticide and herbicide use in agricultural areas? Explain.

QUES. 3b: List some sources and issues surrounding the possible water pollution from agricultural sources.

Text p. 302-304, 494-498

Maps of pesticide use
Non-Point Sources for Agriculture

Agricultural sources of pollution

 6. Thermal pollution Text p. 304 ProfO Notes: Cooling Tower photos and graphic
 7. Ocean Pollution - oil and dredge spoils

 Oil Pollution
Respond to an Oil Spill
Exxon Valdez - cleanup photos

Oil spill off the coast of Spain.
Carlos Alvarez/Getty Images

 8. Ground water contamination Text - p, 305-06


Drinking Water Contaminants

Arsenic in U. S. Water Supply
Arsenic Map of U. S.


Arsenic Laced Tube Wells in Bangladesh

QUES. 4: Pick one question. Use the above internet sites to find information and get an overview on the type of pollution. What chemicals are present? Effects on the environment? Health effects, if any?
a. Thermal pollution
b. Ocean pollution
c. Ground water contamination - in general. Several people may pick this one and discuss different sources and specific contaminents.
d. Arsenic EPA standard controversy - although this is of natural origin.
e. Aresenic in Bangladesh well water.

 9. Domestic Water Treatment Plants

History of Domestic Sewage Treatment
Brief Sewage Treatment

Boston Harbor Deer Island Treatment Plant

Boston Sewer System

 A. Primary and Secondary Treatment

Text p. 306-309

ProfONotes: Water Treatment at City of Elmhurst, Ill

Do a or b
QUES. 5a: Explain the basic steps in how a waste water treatment plant operates.What are the major chemical(s) removed during secondary treatment?

QUES. 5b: If these chemicals are not removed effectively, the BOD levels in a stream or lake where the waste water is discharged will increase dramatically and result in very low to no oxygen in the water. Explain the natural cycle that includes bacteria, oxygen, organic chemicals, and BOD.

Text p. 306-309

ProfONotes: Water Treatment at City of Elmhurst, Ill

ProfO Notes: Natural cycle



 B. Tertiary or Advanced Waste Treatment

Text p. 309
Advanced Process Wikipedia
Field trip to Blue Plains - read toward bottom for tertiary treatment.

QUES. 6: Sorry, I could not find detailed info here. Sites have disappeared. Carefully read text and carefully search the above sites for bits of info.

Pick one question
a. Use the above internet sites to find information and get an overview about the purpose of advanced waste treatment. How does it work? What chemicals are removed by this treatment? Pick one of the methods and discuss it.
b. Why should these chemicals be removed and not released into the natural water systems? What natural processes are disrupted if these chemicals are present in the natural water after waste treatment?
ProfONotes: Natural Biochemical Cycles

 C. Rural Septic Tank Systems How Septic Tanks Work
Septic Tanks
More details on Septic Tanks

QUES. 7: For those students that live in rural areas that have Septic Tank Systems:
Use the above internet sites to find information and get an overview about the purpose of Septic Tank Systems. How do they work?