Online Topic Discussion: Two Questions are required:
Question 1 select a hazardous chemical - free choice (2 pts)
Question 2 in two parts is required for this topic (4 pts).
Extra credit (1 pt.) A third question may be to respond or comment to someone else, or use General Questions to ask a general question the Prof or others might answer.
Blackboard - Discussion Pages
and then copy and paste into Blackboard
Method to list references and citations.
Text Readings: Chap. 19 - p. 564-580
1. Definitions of toxic or hazardous waste
|Brief definition: Fatal to humans in low doses; carcinogenic, mutagenic; flammable or ignitable at less than 60 C; corrosive; or highly reactive or explosive||
Text p. 564-66
|Toxic Substances: Chemicals that are fatal to animals and humans in low doses; most are neurotoxins, which attack nerve cells.|
|Hazardous Substances: Substances or action that can cause injury, disease, economic loss, or environmental damage.|
|Physical hazards: ionizing radiation, fires|
|Chemical hazards: harmful chemicals in air, water, or food. Can cause harm because they are flammable or explosive, irritate or damage the skin or lungs, or induce allergic reactions of the immune system (allergens), carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens|
|Biological hazards: disease causing bacteria and viruses|
2. Toxicology, Poisons,
and Hazards - Chap 18
|A. Testing For Toxicity - LD 50 - a lethal dose of chemical that results in the death of 50 % of the test subjects.||p.535-537|
|B. Corrosive - Strong Acids and Bases and Oxidizing Agents such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide.||p. 538|
|C. Metabolic Poisons - Hydrogen cyanide, HCN, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide||p.539|
|D. Toxic Metals - Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic||
Case Study - Mercury - Minamata Bay
|E. Neurotoxins - Chemical warfare agents, pesticides, botulism, anthrax||p. 543-547|
| F. Mutagens - cause
mutations - Alfatoxin, benzopyrene, nitrous acid , caffeine
Carcinogens - cause cancer - benzopyrene, naphthylamine, vinyl chloride, radiation
Teratogens - cause birth defects - As, Cd, Hg, PCB's, Thalidomide
G. PCB's, Dioxins,Biomagnification-
based upon solubility - likes dissolve likes; organics accumulate
in the fatty tissues of each higher order animal.
p. 230, 304, 422
Biomagnification of DDT
p. 33-35, 554-55
EPA Asbestos Info - also other links on indoor air pollution
|K. PBT: Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic Chemicals||
QUES. 1: Choose any chemical or element from the list in section # 2 (above). In section #2 K - PBT there are 10 compounds that you can choose from. Briefly describe what the comound is, what it is used for, why and how it is a health hazard, and any corrective measures needed.
Do a Waste disposal method or a Case Study from Section # 6 A and B (see below). Give about the same information as requested for the chemical above.
See text pages and links above and below
3. Risk Assessment
|A. Measuring Toxicity||p. 552
Ames Test - screening test for mutagens
|B. Risk assessment and acceptance|
4. Environmental Impact of hazardous waste
|A. Contaminate groundwater and other water supplies|| Groundwater
Groundwater Contamination - many brief spcific links - nice diagrams
|B. Soil contamination||Waste Disposal of Sludge - from water treatment plant|
|C. Habitat destruction of major ecosystems||Biomagnification of DDT|
|D. Risks to Human Health|
|E. Fires, Explosions, and Property Damage|
|5. Sources and producers of hazardous waste||Hazardous Waste Definitions, Methods, Superfund|
|A. Methods: Land fills, incineration, deep injection wells, lagoons, land spreading, unsafe storage, illegal dumping||
Injection Wells - EPA
B. Case Studies:
Love Canal, NY
Times Beach, MO
Valley of the Drums, KY
Canal - EPA links
Beach - Series of links
Valley of the Drums - graphic
|C. Superfund Clean Up||Superfund
- A concise description of the program
Superfund Home Page
Superfund 20th Anniversary Report
|NOTES: In 1980, Congress established
what is commonly known as the Superfund Program. This is a fund
financed jointly by the federal and state governments and taxes
on chemical and petrochemical industries. The money is to be
used for the cleanup of abandoned or inactive hazardous-waste
dump sites and leaking underground tanks that are threats to
human health and the environment. The EPA is authorized to collect
fines and sue the owners of abandoned sites and tanks to recover
up to three times the cleanup costs.
In 1989, the EPA estimated that there are more than 32, 000 sites in the United States containing hazardous sites, but has stopped looking for any others. By 1991, The EPA placed 1,211 sites on a National Priority list for cleanup because of their threat to nearby populations.
In 1991, the EPA announced that $ 7 billion at been spent and declared 64 sites "clean", removed 24 sites from the Priority list, spent an average of $26 million per site. In fact only $2.4 billion was actually spent on clean-up. The remaining money was spent on administrative and litigation costs to compel owners of waste to pay up.
Do both parts for full credit.
QUES. 2a: Pick ONE Superfund Site in Illinois or anywhere in the U.S., give a 2-3 sentence description of the site and list several hazardous chemicals which are present. Then select ONE chemical found at the selected superfund site and briefly report some interesting facts about this one specific chemical, such as what is it? impacts on the ecology and environment, and impacts on health.
Brief Description of Chemicals and Health Effects
|QUES. 2b: Site Clean-Up or Remediation: Select ONE method and briefly explain how it is used to clean up the selected chemical (part a.). Include a description of the method, what contaminants are cleaned up, what are the chemistry, biology, or science principles used in the method?||
Technology Focus - click on side menu for more specifics.
7. Control and Management
|A. Reduce or waste minimization through process changes, Recycle and Reuse||.|
|B. Conversion to less hazardous form|
8. Hazardous Household Chemicals
|Lawn care fertilizers and Pesticides|