Blackboard- Discussion Pages

Charles E. Ophardt, Professor of Chemistry, Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, IL 60126, charleso at, Copyright 2004


 ON-LINE Lecture Discussion Requirement:

Everyone should do QUES 3b (2 points).

Everyone should do Question 4. (counts as 2 questions for 4 points) Each student should do one metal. Do ALL parts for full credit.

Extra credit (1 pt.) An optional question may be to do another question of your choice (1abc, 2, 3a) or respond or comment to someone else, or use General Questions to ask a general question the Prof or others might answer.

Check answers already completed in
Blackboard - Discussion Pages

Write out answers to questions in a WORD PROCESSOR
and then copy and paste into

Requirements for the Lecture On-Line Discussion
Method to list references and citations.

Text Readings: Chap 2



 Text: Chap 2

Use of metals that are mined - metals in an electric light bulb - metals mined in Nevada
How many mined resources do you use?

What Mining Provides
43 Minerals and their Uses

QUES. 1: a. How many different elements (both metals and nonmetals) are used to make a light bulb? Make a list. Second student can determine if the first answer is correct.


QUES. 1b: Do the same as QUES. 1a for toothpaste. (2students)

QUES. 1c: Make some comments about the use of elements required by you in one year or in one life time. Where do you use these elements? Do you believe it? Consider that a lot of industry may use these elements in support of our life style. (3 students)

 Use of metals that are mined - metals in an electric light bulb - metals mined in Nevada. This graphic may be hard to read. (They changed the site on me from last year) In which case you can download it as a pdf Adobe Acrobat file if you have that program on your computer.

OR What metals and minerals are in toothpaste?
and Rocks in your mouth

How many mined resources do you use?
43 Minerals and their Uses

 1. Origin of Mineral Resources (ores) and distribution  Resource is anything we get from living and nonliving environment to meet our needs and wants.
Nonrenewable , or exhaustible, resources exist in a fixed amount in the Earth's crust.
Mineral resources include: energy resources (coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, geothermal);
Metallic minerals : iron, copper, aluminum, etc.;
Nonmetallic minerals: salt, gypsum, clay, sand phosphates, soil, water.
Renewable Resources: Those that potentially can last indefinitely because it is replaced as or more rapidly than it is used. Examples include solar energy, trees in forests, grasses in grasslands, wild animals, fresh surface water in lakes and streams, fresh air, and fertile soil. If the natural replenishment rate is exceeded beyond a sustainable yield, the resource becomes nonrenewable and leads to environmental degradation.

 A. Rock Cycle - Processes that make rocks and minerals

Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic

  Text p. 29-30, 32
 B. Formation and Concentration of mineral resources

Magmatic concentration - molten rock stratifies by gravity as it cools and concentrates metals
Hydrothermal solutions in late stages of cooling magma- sulfides of Pb, Cu, Ag, Zn, Au
Black smokers undersea hot springs - sulfide ores
Sedimentation - minerals dissolve in warm water and reprecipitate in cooler water
Brines/seawater; laterites-weathering in the tropics - oxides of Fe, Al, Mn, Ni;
Placer deposits from eroded rocks carried to streams
Evaporites - from sea water - salt gypsum, potash. soda ash (sodium sulfate), phosphates

List of Minerals - Brief uses, pictures, may be slow to Load

 C. Ores

High grade (high percentage of metal)

Low grade (very low percentage of metal)
Ores in the form of sulfides or oxides mixed with silicates. Low grade ores become uneconomical if the time, effort, cost, high energy needed and costs, amount of waste material - do not yield a selling price to recover the costs.

 2. Reserves, Economic resources, Depletion Time Text p. 37 Identified resources - known location, quantity, and quality
Reserves - are identified resources that can be extracted economically at present prices & technology
Undiscovered - potential supplies based upon geologic knowledge, but location and quantity unknown.
 A. Location of Reserves imports from many countries  

 B. Critical and strategic minerals:

Cr, Mn, Co, Al, Ta, Sn, Pt, Pd

 C. Mining low grade deposits requires larger amounts of energy, more tailings, more water
 D. Minerals from the sea water and ocean floor  

QUES. 2: What are the lessons to be learned about supply and demand of metals in the U. S.? Economics, political - if some countries refused to export to the U. S. as in time of war. (3 students)  Strategic Metals - Time Mag.


3. Extraction and Concentration Methods - Text p. 35-37 General Overview of the Mining Process
 A. Subsurface or underground mining

General Methods of Mining - Look at a series of sub pages

Types of Coal Mining w/pictures

 B. Surface or strip mining - (same as open cut mining)

 General Methods of Mining - Look at a series of sub pages

Diamond Mine - Pictues of the deepest hole on earth. Link found by Kevin Terry.

 C. Concentration of ore  Use physical and chemical methods to increase concentration of metal, leaching of low grade ores.
Flotation Process -
Separation of the Metal -
 D. Impact on the Environment

 Mining is one of the most environmentally damaging activities carried out by humans. In the United States mining produces at least six times the amount of solid waste produced by towns and cities.
Overburden, tailings, acid mine drainage, more acid mine drainage, leaching of other metals from tailings, erosion/sedimentation, landslides, tailings dam failure, reclamation.
Reclamation - National Mining Association

Environmental Concerns -

ProfO Notes: In-situ Mining - Florence, AZ - no surface mining, but weak acid in injected into wells and recoverd in other wells. The rock is not moved.

Reclamation Stories - many links to case studies

QUES. 3a: What are the chemical and environmental effects of strip mining as listed in this article. Give some specific chemical names. (2 students)

 QUES. 3b: Use the internet sites on the right and take a side in the issue "Should more of the Public/U.S. Government owned lands be opened up for mining? YES or NO Give reasons. We are not talking about mining in the National Parks or Monuments. Consider the uses and benefits of the metals obtained in mining and also possible environmental effects of mining.

(unlimited number students may answer)

More on Public Lands
Strategic Metals - Time Mag.

Mining Law of 1872 - still in effect!

General Methods of Mining - Look at a seris of sub pages
Responsible Mining - a contribution from Rob Vugteveen Director, Asarco Mineral Discovery Center
General Overview of the Mining Process

ProfO Notes: Copper Mine and Smelter - extensive explanations of Asarco Mission Mine, Ray Mine, and Hayden Smelter in Arizona.
ProfO Notes: In-situ Mining -BHP Florence, AZ

NO -
Yellowstone Gold Mine
The Yellowstone Mine was stopped by the U.S. government buying the mining rights - no linger an active issue.

Environmental Mining Hazards -

Crandon Mine in Wisconsin


 QUES. 4: Each person should pick one of the metals not already completed from section 4 A-J which follows. Prepare a brief summary report (5 paragraphs) about the metal which includes ALL of the following information:
This is worth 2 Questions = 4 points.

1. location and sources of the ore (how was the ore formed over geologic time?),

2. methods to purify or concentrate the ore (give some chemistry names and/or formulas of the processes),

3. reduction methods to obtain the metal form from the compound ion form, (give some chemistry names and/or formulas of the processes)

4. uses of the metal,

5. and environmental impacts of mining and processing into the metal. This is general info about almost all of the metals.

You may use the internet sources listed below (4. A-J) or a science encyclopedia in the reference section of the library (hard copy or online copy - see link on right.

 Assignments: Pick one that is not already completed. If need to double up pick Fe, Al, or Cu for further discussion or try to add new information to an existing report of another element.


 A. C. Buehler Library
Elmhurst College

Also you may Check out "Reference Sources", then "Access Science" - McGraw Hill Online Encyclopedia of Science and Technology

4. General Methods to Convert Ore to Metals

General Resources
Wikipedia is an online encylopedia which can be used to find a lot of info about specific chemicals and many other things as well.
Wikipedia - Chemistry Portal

 A. Iron and steel Iron ores (35-65% Fe):

Ores: Hematite (Fe2O3); magnetite (Fe3O4); siderite (FeCO3); limonite (FeO(OH))
Locations: Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Alabama. Also need coal and limestone

Reduction of ore by heat and carbon to Fe

ProfO Notes: Iron Blast Furnace and process explanation


 B. Copper (0.6-1% Cu):

Locations: Utah, Arizona, Chile

Copper ores many:
chalcopyrite (CuFeS2); Chalcocite (Cu2S); Malachite Cu2CO3(OH)2; azurite (Cu(CO3)2(OH)2

 Bingham Copper Mine photo - largest copper mine in the world.

Roasting or smelting , air oxidation of sulfides; hydrometallurgy; electrolysis

History and Modern Methods to Extract Copper from ore

ProfO Notes: Copper Mine and Smelter - extensive explanations of Asarco Mission Mine, Ray Mine, and Hayden Smelter in Arizona.

Asarco Discovery Center - Look at mining for a virtual tour of all phases of mining operations courtesy of Asarco Mineral Discovery Center

Copper Production - From Ore to Finished Products

 C. Aluminum p. 188-189, 234-245

Ores: Bauxite (50-60% Al)-clay mixture of hydrous oxides of Al; mixed with orange iron oxides

Location: Western Hemisphere 70% - Arkansas, Jamaica, Surinam, British Guiana

Chemical concentration of metal oxide ; electrolysis - 1 pop can = 300 watt-hr or 1000 kcal

ProfO Notes: Bauxite to Aluminum Process

Aluminum Production with Chemical Equations

Aluminum Encyclopedia

Chemical Processing of Jamaican Bauxite - usually slow to load, but has good information.

 D. Gold Mining Cortez Gold Mine, Nevada
ProfONotes: Gold Extraction

Gold Encyclopedia
Lead Encyclopedia
zinc, copper, silver, indium
Zinc Encyclopedia
 G. Titanium Titanium Encyclopedia
New Process
 Magnesium Magnesium Encyclopedia
 H. Tin Tin Encyclopedia
Silver Encylodedia -
Nickel Encyclopedia
Mond Process
Mond Process with reactions
 K. Calcium in Limestone  Limestone mining and uses
 L. Uranium  Uranium - Mining and Processing
Uranium Encyclopedia