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Charles E. Ophardt, Professor of Chemistry, Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, IL 60126, charleso@elmhurst.edu, Copyright 2004

TOPIC 9: GLOBAL AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

ON-LINE Lecture Discussion Requirement of 3 questions:
Do ONE question from the QUES 1 (about 15-18 people can do this one), 2 and 3 (3-4 people can do question 3 or 4 each)
ONE Question from QUES 4a-d. (your choice)
ONE Question from QUES 5-8. (your choice)

Extra credit 1 point: question may be to respond or comment to someone else, or use General Questions to ask a general question the Prof or others might answer.

Check answers already completed in
Blackboard - Discussion Pages

Write out answers to questions in a WORD PROCESSOR
and then copy and paste into
Blackboard

Requirements for the Lecture On-Line Discussion
Method to list references and citations.

1. Types and sources of air pollutants (text chap 11)

 General Reference and Definitions General Definitions

 A. Outdoor Air Pollution Sources - Photochemical Smog

Text p. 327-336

Photochemical Smog and Ground-Level Ozone - A brief Review
Air Quality Index - Extensive listing including health effect of each of the air pollutants
Photochemical Smog - brief with simple graphic
Carbon Monoxide - CO, Incomplete combustion reactions, cigarette smoking, natural processes from methane.

 Carbon Monoxide

ProfO Notes: Octane combustion graphic

Nitrogen Oxides - NO, NO2, (N2O) - from synthesis of nylon and natural denitrification rxs.)  Nitrogen oxides
Volatile Organics (VOCs)- gasoline vapors, unburned hydrocarbons, industrial processes VOC or unburned hydrocarbons

 Ozone - O3

Text p. 337-339

Ozone: good up vs. bad nearby - Briefly explains the difference between ozone in the troposphere vs. the stratosphere.
Smog - How does it hurt? - Health Effects of ozone
Destructive ozone
What is smog - ground level ozone
Automobiles and Ozone - pdf file
Animated Ozone Maps - Current daily maps for regions of the country (May - September)
Archive Maps for whole U.S. may select regions or cities
Try this one for
June 23, 2005 - Midwest

 Suspended Particles

Text p. 335-337

FAQs on particulates

Smog Pictures from China
Air Pollution in China

 Calculate your Pollution output Emissions Calculator - Gives a total for all pollutants - most of which is carbon dioxide.

 QUES. 1: For each the following air pollutants: Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, VOCs, Ozone, and suspended particles, describe each of the following: source or how made, health effect, how controlled. (3-4 students may each work on one of the five above. Text p. 327-339 and internet links above.


 C. Indoor Air Pollution - radon (text p. 332), smoking, cooking and heating (text p. 343-44)
Indoor Air Quality - general reference - EPA
Indoor Air Quality guide - EPA

A Citizen's Guide to Radon in Homes
U.S. Radon Potential Map See mid page for this clickable line -An Adobe Acrobat pdf version of the map is available (suitable for printing): color - zonemapcolor.pdf (327KB file)
Also can do state maps.

Health Effects of Radon Report
Indoor Air Pollution
Introduction - Indoor Air Pollution
Second hand smoke

 QUES. 2: List and describe some specific indoor air pollutants. Give some sources, health effects, and control measures. (3-4 students) (text p. 43-44)
Indoor Air Pollution
Targeting Indoor Air Pollution
Second hand smoke

QUES. 3: Summarize why radon may be a potential problem in homes. Where does it come from? What are the health effects? Should any one worry about this and get their home tested immediately? (3-4 students)  Text p. 122, 129, 131, 344
A Citizen's Guide to Radon in Homes
U.S. Radon Potential Map
Health Effects of Radon Report


2. Ozone layer depletion - (text p. 340-343)


 A. Caused by synthesis and use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

General set of ozone links from EPA

Ozone Layer
Ozone Depletion - Specific brief Questions and Answers on ozone depletion only.
- good graphics
Ozone's Problem -with Polar Stratospheric Clouds
General information on ozone science - a general review
Ozone Hole Tour - Cambridge University, UK
Simple graphic of Ozone depletion

Calculated picture of Ozone concentration - shows an actual hole

Ozone Hole Watch - NASA

Ozone Hole - animation of the ozone hole in 2000. Go to bottom of page for links of animated or coomposite images.
Animated Graph of Ozone concentrations over Antarctica for a complete year- 2005 - keep watching into September/October.

Graph of ozone vs. altitude - pick a date in late September or early October.
Some myths about ozone over North America - see mid page for comoparision -1979 and 1994.
Ozone maps - South Pole 1979-1997
Ozone maps - North Pole 1979-1998
Archive of ozone hole maps - Select dates
EPA Home Page on Ozone - contains many links to other pages. Look here if interested in more information.
Controversy surrounding ozone depletion - This is a brief review of two opposing papers on several questions concerning ozone depletion.
Common Myths about the nonexistence of the ozone problem - a series of links.

 B. Effects UV Index Information Links
UV Exposure Maps
UV Index - Series of links relating to health issues and the UV Index. Includes a link to a National map of the daily UV Index.
C. Possible control measures - Montreal Protocol- link is for a brief backgrounder which summerizes a lot of the info - 11 page pdf file Montreal Protocol - Ozone Depletion: 1987 - Backgrounder

QUES 4. A series of questions relating to Satellite Images of the Ozone Hole. Click on site to the right for the actual questions.  Satellite Images of the Ozone Hole

QUES. 5: Is ozone depletion of proven significance enough to warrant government regulation of CFC's? Give some specific chemicals (names or formulas and/or reactions)
Summarize the YES and NO positions to this question. Each student pick either YES or NO.

Controversy surrounding ozone depletion - This is a brief review of two opposing papers on several questions concerning ozone depletion.

You may also use any Internet sites in Sections A-C above.

QUES. 6: Will the the additional amount of UV exposure be significant to humans?
Summarize the YES and NO positions to this question. Each student pick either YES or NO.

Go about half way down to find this question.
Controversy surrounding ozone depletion - This is a brief review of two opposing papers on several questions concerning ozone depletion.

UV Exposure Effects -

QUES. 7: In the Oct. 19, 1997 issue of the Chicago Tribune the following editorial appeared:

"The Tribune reports (page 4, Oct. 11) that the ozone "hole" in the atmosphere is the same size as it has been for several years despite costly environmental regulations prohibiting the use of chlorofluorocarbons that destroy ozone. These CFCs had been used in refrigeration. The article goes on to report that a reduction of ozone can lead to skin cancer and cataracts.
On page 6 is a story about new costly environmental standards to reduce ozone pollution from Midwest coal burning power plants. While power plants to not emit ozone, they do emit nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons that can form ozone - which is claimed to be "debilitating to the young, elderly, and anybody with respiratory problems." The new regulations will dramatically increase the electric power costs.
So, environmentalists have caused a significant increase in refrigeration costs to prevent the destruction of ozone, and now they want to further increase the cost of electric power to prevent the formation of ozone. Is it no wonder that they are completely losing public confidence?"

 Write a reply in the form of an editorial that could be understood by the general public that would clarify several points about ozone in this editorial. There are at least two misunderstandings that could be corrected in your reply. Give some specific chemicals (names or formulas and/or reactions)

 Reference if you missed it earlier: Ozone: good up vs. bad nearby - Briefly explains the difference between ozone in the troposphere vs. the stratosphere.

Smog - How does it hurt? - Health Effects of ozone


3. Greenhouse effect
A. Definition of greenhouse analogy
B. Caused by the increase of carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels and other gases
C. Possible global climate changes
D. Possible control measures

Text p. 344-49

ProfONotes: Global Warming

QUES. 8: "Air pollution (smog) is causing the ozone hole and increasing global warming". Many people will say this statement is true, but from what you have learned in this chapter, describe why this statement is completely false. Briefly summarize the molecules that are the causes of all three problems and briefly explain the definitions of each problem.  Text Chap. 11