CHEM 110

Exam #3              Topics 8-11          Name  ___________________________


Multiple Choice:  2 pts. Each




_____1. The layer of the atmosphere in which the ozone layer is found is called the:


a)    biosphere           

b)    stratosphere       

c)     roposphere        

d)    ionosphere



_____2. Most ultraviolet rays do not reach the earth's surface after passing through the ozone layer because:


            a)  UV radiation is released when ozone decomposes

            b)  UV radiation prevents ozone from decomposing

            c)  UV radiation is absorbed when ozone decomposes

            d)  UV radiation is absorbed when ozone is synthesized


_____3. Carbon monoxide is formed by:


            a)  carbon dioxide releasing an oxygen atom

            b)  carbon dioxide combining with an oxygen atom

            c)  burning methyl alcohol

            d)  burning carbon compounds with an insufficient supply of oxygen



_____4. Carbon monoxide in high concentrations may lead to death because it:


            a)  destroys hemoglobin    

            b)  attaches to red blood cells

            c)  attaches to the hemoglobin molecule in place of oxygen

            d)  reacts with oxygen so the oxygen cannot attach to hemoglobin


_____5.  The NOx compounds return to the surface of the earth in the form of acid rain as:


a)    nitric acid                                    

b)    nitrate salt particles

c)     ammonium nitrate                   

d)    ammonia


_____6.  Catalytic converters do all of the following EXCEPT:


a)    Rh catalyzes reduction reactions                    

b)    reduce NO gas to N2 gas

c)     Pt and Pd catalyze reduction reactions          

d)    oxidize CO to CO2



_____7. Sulfur trioxide reacts with water to form:


a)    SO2                      

b)    SO                        

c)     H2SO3                 

d)    H2SO4


_____8. The reaction:  2 CaO (s)    +    2 SO2 (g)    +    O2 (g)    -->     CaSO4 (s)

is the basis of:


a)    sulfur dioxide scrubbers                                  

b)    particulate removal

c)     electrostatic precipitators                                 

d)    bag filtration


_____9. Particulates from smokestack gases results in all of the following EXCEPT


            a)  contributes to a London type smog

            b)   removal creates a solid waste disposal problem

            c)  may exert a general cooling effect on the climate

            d)  contributes to photochemical smog



_____10. Which of the following is NOT one of the principal components required for photochemical smog?


            a)  nitrogen oxides                          

b)  sunshine

            c)  hydrocarbons                             

d)  sulfur dioxide


_____11. The major source of photochemical smog is:


a)    automobile emissions              

b)    fossil fuel power plant emissions

c)     industrial emissions                  

d)    nuclear power plant emissions


_____12.         Which of the following is an initiating source but NOT a PRODUCT of photochemical smog?


a)    ozone      

b)    unbruned hydrocarbons         

c)     aldehydes                       

d)    PAN


_____13. CFCs are inert in the troposphere and reactive in the stratosphere.


a)    TRUE                                           

b)    ALSE


_____14. The impact of CFCs on the ozone layer is amplified by the fact that:


            a)  CFCs replicate in the stratosphere

            b)  CFCs decompose before reaching the stratosphere

            c)  CFCs molecules react directly with ozone to destroy it

            d)  one CFC molecule will lead to the decomposition of many ozone molecules


_____15. Greenhouse gases are gases that:


            a)  absorb infrared radiation and changes it to heat energy

            b)  absorb incoming solar radiation

            c)  radiate ultraviolet radiation back to earth in the form of heat

            d)  absorb ultraviolet radiation  and cool the atmosphere




_____16.         The climate modifying property of land near lakes and oceans is because of the water's:


            a)  density                             

b)  boiling point

c)     surface tension                                      

d)    high heat of vaporization


_____17. Water's unique properties, high heat capacity, high density, solid phase less dense than liquid phase can be attributed to:


            a)  it's formula, H2O

            b)  the covalent oxygen-hydrogen bonds in the molecule

            c)  the shape of the molecule

            d)  the polarity of the molecules and hydrogen bonding between molecules


_____18. Which term is responsible for the majority of the water vapor in the atmosphere over the land only?


a)    condensation                                         

b)    evaporation

c)     transpiration                                          

d)    precipitation


_____19. Oxygen consuming wastes are:


            a)  plant nutrients

            b)  bacteria

            c)  organic material in the water

            d)  fish


_____20. Which substance is likely to be produced when the dissolved oxygen in a lake is depleted?


a)    hydrogen sulfide, H2S                         

b)    phosphate,   PO43-

            c)  carbon dioxide,   CO2                

d)  bicarbonate,   HCO3-


_____21. Irrigation affects concentrations of dissolved solids in water in all of the following ways EXCEPT:


            a)  further irrigation concentrates dissolved solids in the water

            b) runoff from the land increases the dissolved solids in the water

            c) evaporation causes  solids to accumulate on the soil surface

            d) the water becomes less saline



_____22. The first step in secondary treatment of sewage process can be described mostly as:


a)    physical               

b)    chemical              

c)     biological


_____23.       One of the potential problems with chlorination of waste water is that it:


            a)  provides no residual protection

            b)  is ineffective against pathogenic bacteria

            c)  produces low levels of chlorine and bromine containing hydrocarbons, which may be cancer causing

            d)  is more expensive than other approaches


_____24.         Which ground water pollutant may cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome)?


a)    VOCs

b)    iron                      

c)     carbon monoxide          

d)    nitrates


_____25. The Aral Sea in central Asia is drying up because:


            a)  there has been very little rain for a long time

            b)  water has been drained from the lake to support several cities

            c)  water has been diverted from rivers that flow into the lake so it can be used for irrigation

            d)  farmland has been reclaimed from the lake



26.       a)(4)  Briefly define and explain the causes of ACID RAIN-(include some specific chemicals by name and formula and reactions, if possible).  See p. 150-51, 193-96, 330, 333-334






b)(3)  Then list/explain some consequences of the problem (What things are adversely effected?)






c)(3)  Finally propose some very specific solutions to the problem.  How can it be prevented? p. 334






27. (9) (See p. 284-289.) a.  List and define 3 unique or "abnormal" properties of water.  (Ice density counts as one property.)


            b.  What structure of water and bonding property is responsible for some of these abnormal properties?


              c.  Explain the environmental or climate consequences of these properties.




28. (9) Water pollutants can be divided into different categories as considered in Chapter 10.  (See p. 294-306).  Choose THREE categories listed below and briefly discuss them.  


Include the following THREE items for EACH discussion:

                        a.  sources

b.  effects on the environment

c.  steps to control them or cleanup


Choose ANY THREE from below:

Disease Causing Agents

Oxygen-consuming wastes

Nutrients and Eutrophication

Pollution of Ground Water

Toxic Substances











29.       a)(6)  A major goal of sewage treatment is to reduce the amount of organic waste which is released to a natural water body.  Explain how this is accomplished in primary and secondary treatment.  Include at least all of the following terms such as oxygen, bacteria, sludge, aerobic.  See p. 306-308.









30.  (3)  One approach to increasing fresh water supply in water deficient areas near sea water sources is desalination.  Explain the process of  REVERSE OSMOSIS used for desalination and the energy problems and costs related to them. p. 293-94



31.       Ozone hole is bigger, thinner, riskier by Erica Bulman

Associated Press  Chicago Tribune


October 4, 2003   See article at end of exam


            a)(2)  What is the purpose of ozone in the stratosphere?






            b)(2)  What health effects are possible if the ozone concentration is depleted?





            c)(2)  In the fourth paragraph there is a potentially misleading statement, ... largely due to chemical pollution.  General air pollution is not the cause of ozone pollution -  What chemicals are meant?  See toward the end of the article.

            d) (2 ) What general conditions are necessary to cause  the ozone hole depletion?





            e)(5)  The newspaper article does not do a good job of explaining the chemistry of the ozone hole.  Continue to add to the article to explain why the ozone hole develops.  Use some words and/or equations as found in your text to help with this.  (P. 340-343.)





Ozone hole is bigger, thinner, riskier



UN researchers say UV shield loss could last longer


By Erica Bulman

Associated Press


October 4, 2003


GENEVA -- The ozone hole over the South Pole is as large as it has ever been and lasting longer this year, heightening concern about harmful UV radiation reaching Earth, the United Nations weather organization said Friday.


Compounding matters, the thinnest area is the largest ever measured, about two-thirds of the hole's total size, the World Meteorological Organization said.


"The ozone hole is getting larger, deeper and is lasting longer," said Michael Proffitt, a leading expert on the ozone hole at the UN agency. "It has never stayed this large, this late."


The "hole" is a thinner-than-normal area in the protective layer of gas high in the atmosphere. It has formed in August--the end of the Antarctic winter--every year since the mid-1980s, largely due to chemical pollution.


In recent years, the hole has tended to reach its maximum size about mid-September, after which it mostly gets refilled with surrounding ozone.


But this year the hole peaked twice, once in mid-September and again later in the month, the weather organization said. Each time it measured 10.8 million square miles, matching the record size set in September 2000.


The hole could last longer still, Proffitt said.


"There is certainly no indication it is getting smaller," he said. "It looks like it could be awhile."


Reduction of the ozone layer can let harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun reach Earth's surface. Too much UV radiation can cause skin cancer and destroy tiny plants at the beginning of the food chain.


The UN weather organization said that although the large ozone hole is persisting, UV intensity over Antarctica will remain low until the sun rises higher during the Southern Hemisphere's spring.


"The longer it lasts, the more effect you get from UV," Proffitt said. "When the sun is low, the UV rays slant through on an angle and have to go through a thicker layer.


"But as you go into the Antarctic's spring and the sun rises higher, more UV rays can get directly through the hole."


The weather organization also said the thinnest part--with the ozone level 50 percent below the pre-ozone hole period of 1964-76--exceeded 5.7 million square miles for the first time. It peaked near 6.95 million square miles Sept. 26. That is two-thirds of the ozone hole.


Proffitt said it was too soon to conclude what the significance of this year's larger weak spot would be.


Earth has lost more ozone in the past than this year, he said. In some years, while the thin spot was smaller, it contained even less ozone, which is produced naturally when sunlight combines with oxygen high in the atmosphere.


The sun triggers accelerated ozone loss when it starts to rise again over Antarctica after the dark South Pole winter.


One cause of ozone depletion is the chlorine and bromine released by chemical compounds, such as chlorofluorocarbons, contained in some aerosols and refrigerants.


Chlorofluorocarbon emissions have been curbed under a global accord. As a result, measurements show they are now decreasing in the lower atmosphere and have just peaked and stabilized in the crucial ozone layer in the stratosphere.


Scientists predict it will take about 50 years for the ozone hole to stop forming.



Copyright (c) 2003, Chicago Tribune