Introduction to Covalent Bonding:
Bonding between non-metals consists of two electrons shared
between two atoms. Using the Wave Theory, the covalent bond involves
an overlap of the electron clouds from each atom. The electrons
are concentrated in the region between the two atoms. In covalent
bonding, the two electrons shared by the atoms are attracted
to the nucleus of both atoms. Neither atom completely loses or
gains electrons as in ionic bonding.
There are two types of covalent bonding:
1. Non-polar bonding with an equal sharing of electrons.
2. Polar bonding with an unequal sharing of electrons. The
number of shared electrons depends on the number of electrons
needed to complete the octet.