Oxygen Transport Blood Buffers Elmhurst College Carbon Dioxide Transport Respiratory Acidosis Metabolic Acidosis Chemistry Department Buffers in the Kidenys Respiratory Alkalosis Metabolic Alkalosis Virtual ChemBook

 Hemoglobin - Oxygen Equation: HHgb + O 2 <===> HgbO 2 + H+ Blood Buffer Equation: CO2 + HOH <===> H2CO3 <===> H+ + HCO3-

Metabolic Alkalosis

 Case 1: Use the following lab results to answer the following questions: CO2 = 39; pCO2 = 40; pH = 7.6; K = 3.0. The patient has been vomiting. a. List the condition - acidosis or alkalosis, metabolic or respiratory, compensated or uncompensated. Solution: Use Table 2. pH = 7.6 and K = 3.0 both indicate an alkalosis condition. The pCO2 = 40 value is normal and therefore indicates a metabolic condition. The CO2= 39 value is measuring HCO3- and indicates an uncompensated condition. Therefore, Metabolic Alkalosis - Uncompensated. b. What is the primary cause of the condition? Solution: Consult Table 2 and answer (a) above and consider the vomiting. This indicates a high pH and therefore deficit of H+.     c. Explain the other lab results using the primary cause and equilibrium principles. Solution: Use the equilibrium: CO2 + H2O === H2CO3 === H+ + HCO3- pCO2 is normal. If pH is increased and H+ ions are decreased, the equilibrium shifts to the right and HCO3- is increased as indicated in the CO2 = 39 value. d. State and explain how the compensation will return pH to normal using equilibrium principles. Solution: Table 2 indicates that the lungs retain CO2. If CO2 is increased, the equilibrium in (c) will shift right and H2CO3- and H+ ions will increase, therefore the pH will decrease. f. Explain how the treatment with NH4Cl will work? Solution: NH4Cl is a salt of a weak base, therefore, its solution is acidic, therefore an increase of H+ ions will correct a H+ deficit and decrease the pH. NH4Cl + HOH <===> NH4OH + H+ + Cl weak base strong acid