Hydrocarbons Fossil Fuels Hydrocarbons compounds  Elmhurst College
Alkanes or Chime Alkynes or Chime  Rings or Chime  Chemistry Department
Alkenes or Chime Aromatic or Chime Boiling Points  Virtual ChemBook

 Ethane 

  model (spacefill / ball & stick)

Color Codes

C

 H

 N

 O

 P

 S

 Cl

 F

  Pentane 

  model (spacefill / ball & stick)

Color Codes

C

 H

 N

 O

 P

 S

 Cl

 F
 

 ALKANES

 Alkanes area class of HYDROCARBONS which contain only carbon and hydrogen. Two other terms which describe alkanes are saturated and paraffins.

SATURATED alkanes means that each carbon is bonded to four other atoms through single covalent bonds. Hydrogen atoms usually occupy all available bonding positions after the carbons have bonded to each other.

PARAFFINS which is derived from a Latin word meaning "little activity", and means that the compounds are very unreactive.

The example compounds of ethane and pentane are shown on the LEFT.

Alkanes are the principle compounds found fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil, which is further refined into gasoline. These compounds thus provide a large share of the energy and are also the raw materials for much of the synthetic compounds of various materials, fibers, drugs, plastic, and many other compounds used in modern society.

Properties

 Structure

 Physical Properties

 Chemical Reactivity

 CnH2n+2

Example: CH3CH3

Boiling points depend on chain length.

Non polar

Insoluble in water

No functional groups, saturated, and class name of paraffins which means - Unreactive to other chemicals.

All compounds: Combustion Reaction

ROOT ALKANE NAMES
Root names give the number of carbons in the longest continuous chain. Root names are used with various "endings" to indicate branches, type of bonds between carbons, and functional groups.

The following list gives the most basic root the with normal hydrocarbon alkane endings for the number of carbons in the longest continuous chain. Memorize this list.

Example: root = "eth" + alkane ending = "ane" = ethane

 No. of
Carbons

 Root Name

 Formula
CnH2n+2

 Structure

 1

 methane
 CH4  CH4

 2

 ethane
 C2H6  CH3CH3

 3

 propane
 C3H8  CH3CH2CH3

 4

 butane
 C4H10  CH3CH2CH2CH3

 5

 pentane
  C5H12  CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

 6

 hexane
 C6H14  CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

 7

 heptane
 C7H16  CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

 8

 octane
 C8H18  CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

 9

 nonane
 C9H20  CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

 10

 decane
 C10H22  CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3