Organic Names Functional Group Structures Hydrocarbons compounds  Elmhurst College
Root Name Position Numbers  Inorganic Groups  Chemistry Department
Functional Group Names Carbon Branches Final Name  Virtual ChemBook

 
 
 

 Special Groups as Branches

Other inorganic groups may be attached to carbon. Halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) are commonly found in organic compounds. Halogens are named by dropping the "-ine" from the element name and adding "-o", i.e. Chlorine is "chloro", Fluorine is "fluoro". Another group is NO2 = "nitro". These are all located with position numbers.

Examples:

CHI3

triiodomethane

antiseptic used by veterinarians

 Cl-CH2CH2CH3

1-chloropropane

CF2C2

dichlorodifluoro-
methane

Freon-12,
a CFC -
chlorofluorcarbon

 CH3CH2-NO2

nitroethane

used as a drag racing fuel

 

In some compounds there may be two or more functional groups. If this happens, which functional group is used for the ending in the name? A general rule of thumb is that the more "complicated" functional group is used to determine the ending for the name. More "complicated" means more oxygens or double bonds in comparison to the other functional group. At this time you will not be asked to name compounds of this type but you should be aware of their existence.

Special Names for Functional Groups

 Functional Group

 Structure

 Special Name

 Alcohol

 -OH

 hydroxy

 Amine

 -NH2

 amino

 Ketone

 =C=O

 keto

 Ether

 -O-CH3

 methoxy

 Benzene

 C6H6

 phenyl