Oxidation of Glucose:
Blood glucose levels are now measured by a procedure based
upon the enzyme glucose oxidase. Since an enzyme is used, it
is very specific for only D- glucose, and will not be subject
to interferences from other molecules in the blood.
Glucose is a reducing sugar, which means that it can be oxidized.
The enzyme glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose
to D-gluconic acid. The alpha-D-glucose is rapidly converted
to the beta form so that all of the glucose is measured at one
Diatomic oxygen from the air is the oxidizing agent acting
upon the glucose reducing agent. During the reaction the ring
opens and the aldehyde on carbon # 1 is converted to the acid,
D-gluconic acid. At the same time the oxygen in the presence
of water is converted to hydrogen peroxide. So far all of the
chemicals are colorless, so you would not be able to see the
reaction taking place. Therefore another step is needed to produce